Threat Assessment and Management for Educators and Administrators
8.0 Moving Forward to Implementation
After reviewing this toolkit, you now have a better idea of the threat assessment process and how it can assist you in preventing violence and mitigating threats in your school. The next steps are to commit to the process, form your team, and secure the necessary training. This section of the toolkit provides you with some additional resources to assist you in this process. It contains a list of sources for additional information on the effectiveness of threat assessment management, how it can increase the safety of your school, and where you can go for further information.
Regardless of what other safety initiatives your school does or does not do, the implementation of an effective, functioning threat assessment team is a critical component of keeping your school safe and preventing violence.
Additional reports of original research on the Virginia Student Threat Assessment Guidelines and threat assessment model are also available as part of the University of Virginia’s field test findings.
As mentioned at the beginning of this toolkit, the U.S. Secret Service and Department of Homeland Security’s National Threat Assessment Center guide to threat assessment Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model: An Operational Guide for Preventing Targeted School Violence is a valuable resource to jump start the process of implementing threat assessment in your school.
Threat Assessment in Virginia Public Schools: Model Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines was published by Virginia’s Department of Criminal Justice Services and provides an overview of model policies, procedures, and guidelines.
Model Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines
The Checklist for K-12 Schools Implementing a Student Threat Assessment Process by United Educators Insurance provides an overview of the threat assessment process that lists specific actions and/or activities necessary to create or evaluate a threat assessment program..
K-12 Implementation Checklist
Questions and concerns about FERPA protections often arise as part of the threat assessment planning process. It is critical that threat assessment teams understand how to balance the safety of the school with the privacy of individual students. FERPA does, however, authorize school officials to disclose information without consent in emergency situations where the health and/or safety of students is at risk. Relevant information can be released to law enforcement, public health and medical officials. Information obtained through a school official’s personal knowledge or observation is not protected by FERPA and can also be disclosed. An overview of FERPA protections can be found in the Department of Education’s publication listed below.
Balancing Student Privacy and School Safety: A Guide to the “Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act” for Elementary and Secondary Schools
The University of Nebraska Public Policy Center has published a “Threat Assessment Glossary” which provides assistance in developing a common vocabulary for policy and procedure.
Threat Assessment Glossary
The Educator’s School Safety Network has published a tip sheet providing assistance in designing appropriate supports and interventions.
Tip Sheet for Intervention and Support
While some of the information is Colorado-specific, The Colorado School Safety Resource Center’s Essentials of School Threat Assessment: Preventing Targeted School Violence contains the following graphic and sample support plan.
Cycle of Threat Assessment
Response, Management, and Support Plan
A number of threat assessment and management instruments and/or checklists exist that may serve as a basis for the development of threat assessment protocols and procedures. These range from sample interview questions to actual documentation forms. Please note that these checklists and forms should not be adopted or applied without adequate training and planning to implement them.
The Campus Threat Assessment & Management Instrument
Developed by Bolante, Van Dreal, and Okada of the Salem-Keizer School District in Salem, Oregon.
Eleven Questions to Guide Data Collection in a Threat Assessment Inquiry
Taken from the Threat Assessment Guide from the Department of Education and the United States Secret Service.
Brief Interview Outline for Individual Under Concern
From the Kentucky Center for School Safety’s 2008 Emergency Management Resource Guide.
Student Threat Documentation
Form developed by the University of Virginia’s Curry School of Education.
Checklist for Threat Assessment and Management
Used by the Los Angeles Unified School District.
Threat Assessment Template
Developed by the Indiana Department of Education.