Behavioral Threat Assessment and Management for Educators and Administrators

10.0 Additional Resources

    A number of threat assessment and management instruments and/or checklists exist that may serve as a basis for the development of threat assessment protocols and procedures. These range from sample interview questions to actual documentation forms. Please note that these checklists and forms should not be adopted or applied without adequate training and planning to implement them.

  • The following is based on the steps outlined in Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model: An Operational Guide for Preventing Targeted School Violence., U.S. Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security and Threat Assessment in Schools: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and Creating Safe School Climates, U.S. Dept. of Education.
    Building and operating a School Threat Assessment Program: Implementation Checklist
  • The following worksheet is taken from the Threat Assessment Guide made available by the Department of Education and the United States Secret Service.
    Eleven Questions to Guide Data Collection in a Threat Assessment Inquiry
  • These interview questions are provided from the Kentucky Center for School Safety's 2008 Emergency Management Guide.
    Brief Interview Outline for Individual Under Concern
  • The checklist below is utilized by the Los Angeles Unified School District.
    Checklist for Threat Assessment and Management
  • The Indiana Department of Education (IDOE) has developed the following template.
    Threat Assessment Template
  • The above template and other useful resources from the IDOE can be found on their Threat Assessment webpage, linked below.
    www.doe.in.gov/safety/threat-assessment

    Bibliography of Works Cited or Referenced

  1. Deisinger, G., Randazzo, M., O’Neill, D. & Savage, J. (2008). The Handbook for Campus Threat Assessment & Management Teams. Stoneham, MA: TSG Solutions Inc.
  2. Fein, R. A., Vossekuil, B., Pollack, W. S., Borum, R., Modzeleski, W., & Reddy, M. (2002). Threat Assessment in Schools: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and to Creating Safe School Climates. Washington, DC: U.S. Secret Service & U.S. Department of Education
  3. National Threat Assessment Center. (2018). Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model: An Operational Guide for Preventing Targeted School Violence. U.S. Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security.
  4. National Threat Assessment Center. (2018). Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model: An Operational Guide for Preventing Targeted School Violence – Summary Brief. U.S. Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security.

    Readings for Further Study

  1. Borum, R., Fein, R., Vossekuil, B., & Berglund, J. (1999). Threat assessment: defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 17, 327-337
  2. Calhoun, F.S. & Weston, S.W. (2003). Contemporary Threat Management: A Guide for Identifying, Assessing, and Managing Individuals of Violent Intent. San Diego, CA: Specialized Training Services.
  3. Calhoun, F. S., & Weston, S. W. (2009). Threat Assessment and Management Strategies: Identifying the Hunters and Howlers. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
  4. Reddy, M., Borum, R., Berglund, J., Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., & Modzeleski, W. (2001). Evaluating risk for targeted violence in schools: Comparing risk assessment, threat assessment, and other approaches. Psychology in the Schools, 38, 157-172. doi:10.1002/pits.1007
  5. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Safe and Healthy Students, Guide for Developing High-Quality School Emergency Operations Plans, Washington, DC, 2013.
  6. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, National Threat Assessment Center. (2018, March). Mass Attacks in Public Spaces - 2017. Washington, DC: Author.
  7. Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services. (2013). Threat Assessment in Virginia Public Schools: Model Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines.