Behavioral Threat Assessment and Management for Educators and Administrators
10.0 Additional Resources
United Educators Insurance provides an overview of the threat assessment process that lists specific actions and/or activities necessary to create or evaluate a threat assessment program.
A Checklist for K-12 Schools Implementing a Student Threat Assessment Process
Questions and concerns about FERPA protections often arise as part of the threat assessment planning process. It is critical that threat assessment teams understand how to balance the safety of the school with the privacy of individual students. FERPA does, however, authorize school officials to disclose information without consent in emergency situations where the health and/or safety of students is at risk. Relevant information can be released to law enforcement, public health and medical officials. Information obtained through a school official’s personal knowledge or observation is not protected by FERPA and can also be disclosed. An overview of FERPA protections can be found in the Department of Education’s publication linked below.
Balancing Student Privacy and School Safety: A Guide to the “Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act” for Elementary and Secondary Schools.
The University of Nebraska Public Policy Center has published a glossary which provides assistance in developing a common vocabulary for policy and procedure.
Threat Assessment Glossary
The Educator’s School Safety Network provides assistance in designing appropriate supports and interventions provided in the link below.
Tip Sheet for Intervention and Support
While some of the information is Colorado-specific, The Colorado School Safety Resource Center provides the following guide containing a “Cycle of Threat Assessment” graphic (p. 7) and a sample “Response, Management and Support Plan” (pp. 21-26) that is useful for planning purposes.
Essentials of School Threat Assessment: Preventing Targeted School Violence
Fein, Vossekuil, and Holden provide a summary overview of the threat assessment process from a law enforcement perspective in the article linked below, published in the National Institute of Justice’s Research in Action.
Threat Assessment: An Approach to Prevent Targeted Violence
Published by the FBI, the following is a detailed discussion of threat assessment as it pertains specifically to school shooters.
The School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective
While it is an older resource, the following is one of the best research overviews of what we know to be true about school attackers, both for prevention and response.
The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States
For updated information on mass attacks that focuses on those that occurred in 2017, consult the Department of Homeland Security’s National Threat Assessment Center publication in the link below.
Mass Attacks in Public Spaces - 2017
Resources for Implementing A Threat Assessment Program
The following is based on the steps outlined in Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model: An Operational Guide for Preventing Targeted School Violence., U.S. Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security and Threat Assessment in Schools: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and Creating Safe School Climates, U.S. Dept. of Education.
Building and operating a School Threat Assessment Program: Implementation Checklist
The following worksheet is taken from the Threat Assessment Guide made available by the Department of Education and the United States Secret Service.
Eleven Questions to Guide Data Collection in a Threat Assessment Inquiry
These interview questions are provided from the Kentucky Center for School Safety's 2008 Emergency Management Guide.
Brief Interview Outline for Individual Under Concern
The checklist below is utilized by the Los Angeles Unified School District.
Checklist for Threat Assessment and Management
The Indiana Department of Education (IDOE) has developed the following template.
Threat Assessment Template
The above template and other useful resources from the IDOE can be found on their Threat Assessment webpage, linked below.
A number of threat assessment and management instruments and/or checklists exist that may serve as a basis for the development of threat assessment protocols and procedures. These range from sample interview questions to actual documentation forms. Please note that these checklists and forms should not be adopted or applied without adequate training and planning to implement them.
- Deisinger, G., Randazzo, M., O’Neill, D. & Savage, J. (2008). The Handbook for Campus Threat Assessment & Management Teams. Stoneham, MA: TSG Solutions Inc.
- Fein, R. A., Vossekuil, B., Pollack, W. S., Borum, R., Modzeleski, W., & Reddy, M. (2002). Threat Assessment in Schools: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and to Creating Safe School Climates. Washington, DC: U.S. Secret Service & U.S. Department of Education
- National Threat Assessment Center. (2018). Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model: An Operational Guide for Preventing Targeted School Violence. U.S. Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security.
- National Threat Assessment Center. (2018). Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model: An Operational Guide for Preventing Targeted School Violence – Summary Brief. U.S. Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security.
Bibliography of Works Cited or Referenced
- Borum, R., Fein, R., Vossekuil, B., & Berglund, J. (1999). Threat assessment: defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 17, 327-337
- Calhoun, F.S. & Weston, S.W. (2003). Contemporary Threat Management: A Guide for Identifying, Assessing, and Managing Individuals of Violent Intent. San Diego, CA: Specialized Training Services.
- Calhoun, F. S., & Weston, S. W. (2009). Threat Assessment and Management Strategies: Identifying the Hunters and Howlers. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
- Reddy, M., Borum, R., Berglund, J., Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., & Modzeleski, W. (2001). Evaluating risk for targeted violence in schools: Comparing risk assessment, threat assessment, and other approaches. Psychology in the Schools, 38, 157-172. doi:10.1002/pits.1007
- U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Safe and Healthy Students, Guide for Developing High-Quality School Emergency Operations Plans, Washington, DC, 2013.
- U.S. Department of Homeland Security, National Threat Assessment Center. (2018, March). Mass Attacks in Public Spaces - 2017. Washington, DC: Author.
- Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services. (2013). Threat Assessment in Virginia Public Schools: Model Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines.