Behavioral Threat Assessment and Management for Educators and Administrators
12.0 Additional Resources
Assistance in developing a common vocabulary for policy and procedure developed can be found in a "Threat Assessment Glossary" published by the University of Nebraska Public Policy Center.
Threat Assessment Glossary
Published by the FBI, the following is a detailed discussion of threat assessment as it pertains specifically to school shooters.
The School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective
While it is an older resource, the following is one of the best research overviews of what we know to be true about school attackers, both for prevention and response.
The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States
For updated information on mass attacks that focuses on those that occurred in 2018, consult the Department of Homeland Security’s National Threat Assessment Center publication in the link below.
Mass Attacks in Public Spaces - 2018
Resources for Implementing A Threat Assessment Program
The following is based on the steps outlined in Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model: An Operational Guide for Preventing Targeted School Violence., U.S. Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security and Threat Assessment in Schools: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and Creating Safe School Climates, U.S. Dept. of Education.
Building and operating a School Threat Assessment Program: Implementation Checklist
The following worksheet is taken from the Threat Assessment Guide made available by the Department of Education and the United States Secret Service.
Eleven Questions to Guide Data Collection in a Threat Assessment Inquiry
A number of threat assessment and management instruments and/or checklists exist that may serve as a basis for the development of threat assessment protocols and procedures. These range from sample interview questions to actual documentation forms. Please note that these checklists and forms should not be adopted or applied without adequate training and planning to implement them.
- Deisinger, G., Randazzo, M., O’Neill, D. & Savage, J. (2008). The Handbook for Campus Threat Assessment & Management Teams. Stoneham, MA: TSG Solutions Inc.
- Fein, R. A., Vossekuil, B., Pollack, W. S., Borum, R., Modzeleski, W., & Reddy, M. (2002). Threat Assessment in Schools: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and to Creating Safe School Climates. Washington, DC: U.S. Secret Service & U.S. Department of Education
- National Threat Assessment Center. (2018). Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model: An Operational Guide for Preventing Targeted School Violence. U.S. Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security.
- National Threat Assessment Center. (2018). Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model: An Operational Guide for Preventing Targeted School Violence – Summary Brief. U.S. Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security.
Bibliography of Works Cited or Referenced
- Borum, R., Fein, R., Vossekuil, B., & Berglund, J. (1999). Threat assessment: defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 17, 327-337
- Calhoun, F.S. & Weston, S.W. (2003). Contemporary Threat Management: A Guide for Identifying, Assessing, and Managing Individuals of Violent Intent. San Diego, CA: Specialized Training Services.
- Calhoun, F. S., & Weston, S. W. (2009). Threat Assessment and Management Strategies: Identifying the Hunters and Howlers. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
- FBI Office of Partner Engagement, FBI Training Division Creative Media Development Unit. (2018). Echoes of Columbine [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/video-repository/echoes-of-columbine-2019a.mp4/view
- Reddy, M., Borum, R., Berglund, J., Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., & Modzeleski, W. (2001). Evaluating risk for targeted violence in schools: Comparing risk assessment, threat assessment, and other approaches. Psychology in the Schools, 38, 157-172. doi:10.1002/pits.1007
- U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Safe and Healthy Students, Guide for Developing High-Quality School Emergency Operations Plans, Washington, DC, 2013.
- U.S. Department of Homeland Security, National Threat Assessment Center. (2019, July). Mass Attacks in Public Spaces - 2018. Washington, DC: Author.
- U.S. Department of Homeland Security, United States Secret Service, National Threat Assessment Center. (2019, November). Protecting America’s Schools: A U.S. Secret Service Analysis of Targeted School Violence. Washington, DC: Author.
- Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services. (2013). Threat Assessment in Virginia Public Schools: Model Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines.