Threat Assessment and Management for Educators and Administrators
9.0 Additional Resources
Fein, Vossekuil, and Holden provide a summary overview of the threat assessment process from a law enforcement perspective in the article linked below, published in the National Institute of Justice’s Research in Action.
Threat Assessment: An Approach to Prevent Targeted Violence
Published by the FBI, the following is a detailed discussion of threat assessment as it pertains specifically to school shooters.
The School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective
While it is an older resource, the following is one of the best research overviews of what we know to be true about school attackers, both for prevention and response.
The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States
Published by the Department of Homeland Security’s National Threat Assessment Center, the resource below provides updated information on mass attacks with a focus on those that occured in 2017.
Mass Attacks in Public Spaces - 2017
Readings for Further Study
- Bulling, Denise and Scalora, Mario, "Threat Assessment Glossary" (2013). Publications of the University of Nebraska Public Policy Center. 123. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/publicpolicypublications/123
- Cornell, D., Maeng, J., Huang, F., Burnette, A., Datta, P., & Heilbrun, A. (2015). Threat Assessment in Virginia Schools: Technical Report of the Threat Assessment Survey for 2013-2014. Charlottesville, VA: Curry School of Education, University of Virginia.
- Cornell, D., Maeng, J., Huang, F., Burnette, A., Datta, P., & Heilbrun, A. (2017, August 17). Student Threat Assessment as a Standard School Safety Practice: Results From a Statewide Implementation Study. School Psychology Quarterly.
- Cornell, D., Sheras, P., Kaplan, S. McConville, D., Douglass, J., Elkon A., McKnight, L., Branson, C., & Cole, J. (2004). Guidelines for Student Threat Assessment: Field-Test Findings. School Psychology Review.
- Educator's School Safety Network. (2018). Tip sheet for intervention and support [Pamphlet]. Genoa, OH: Author.
- Fein, R., Vossekuil, B., & Holden, G. (July 1995). Threat Assessment: An Approach to Prevent Targeted Violence. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
- O’Toole, M.E. (2000). The school shooter: A threat assessment perspective. Critical Incident Response Group, National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime, FBI Academy
- National Threat Assessment Center. (2018). Enhancing school safety using a threat assessment model: An operational guide for preventing targeted school violence. U.S. Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security.
- U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Safe and Healthy Students, Guide for Developing High-Quality School Emergency Operations Plans, Washington, DC, 2013.
- U.S. Department of Homeland Security, National Threat Assessment Center. (2018, March). Mass Attacks in Public Spaces - 2017. Washington, DC: Author.
- Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services. (2013). Threat Assessment in Virginia Public Schools: Model Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines.
- Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., Reddy, M., Borum, R., Modzeleski, W. (2002). The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Secret Service and U.S. Department of Education.
- Fein, R. A., Vossekuil, B., Pollack, W. S., Borum, R., Modzeleski, W., & Reddy, M. (2002). Threat assessment in schools: A guide to managing threatening situations and to creating safe school climates. Washington, DC: U.S. Secret Service & U.S. Department of Education
Bibliography of Works Cited or Referenced in the Toolkit
- Borum, R., Fein, R., Vossekuil, B., & Berglund, J. (1999). Threat assessment: defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 17, 327-337
- Calhoun, F.S. & Weston, S.W. (2003). Contemporary threat management: A guide for identifying, assessing, and managing individuals of violent intent. San Diego, CA: Specialized Training Services.
- Calhoun, F. S., & Weston, S. W. (2009). Threat assessment and management strategies: Identifying the hunters and howlers. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
- Deisinger, G., Randazzo, M., O’Neill, D., & Savage, J. (2008). The handbook for campus threat assessment & management teams. Stoneham, MA: Applied Risk Management
- Reddy, M., Borum, R., Berglund, J., Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., & Modzeleski, W. (2001). Evaluating risk for targeted violence in schools: Comparing risk assessment, threat assessment, and other approaches. Psychology in the Schools, 38, 157-172. doi:10.1002/pits.1007